Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Review Article |

Early Germination and Growth Trial of Anogeissus leiocarpus Seeds Sourced from Three Locations in Nigeria

The study investigated early germination and growth trial of Anogeissus leiocarpus. The seeds were collected from three locations; (Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Zaria, Kaduna State and Toro Bauchi State). Seeds were soaked in cold water for 24 hours before sowing in germination beds accordance to specification of location. Three beds for each location. The experiment was laid out in a 4 x 3 factorial experiment in a Randomized Complete Block Design. The results revealed that, Seedlings treated with poultry manure combined with cow dung recorded the highest mean height (18.71±7.22acm), while the least height of (14.65±4.58cm) was obtained in cow dung treated seedlings. Seedlings sourced from Kaduna had the highest mean height of (17.78±9.96acm). While the least height of (14.58±7.31bcm) was obtained in Nasarawa sourced seedlings. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of manure types had a high significant impact on seedlings height,, collar girth, branches and numbers of leaf (0.000**) respectively (P>0.05). The effect of seed sources also had a high significant impact on seedlings height (0.000**), collar girth (0.000**), branches (0.000**) and numbers of leaf (P>0.05). The results of Regression Analysis of parameters assessed on seedlings against height increment revealed that seedlings height yielded coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.573). This implied that the assessed growth variables had about 57.3% effects on the seedlings height. It was concluded that the treatment with Cow dung and poultry manure performed better; therefore it should be adopted in raising the seedlings in the nursery so as to guarantee its sustainable supply to wood industry.

Growth, A. leiocarpus, Seedlings, Poultry Manure, Cattle Dung

APA Style

Jayeoba, O. J., Dauda, K. E., Rotowa, O. J., Falade, L. O., Abass, U. D., et al. (2023). Early Germination and Growth Trial of Anogeissus leiocarpus Seeds Sourced from Three Locations in Nigeria. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 12(5), 163-171.

ACS Style

Jayeoba, O. J.; Dauda, K. E.; Rotowa, O. J.; Falade, L. O.; Abass, U. D., et al. Early Germination and Growth Trial of Anogeissus leiocarpus Seeds Sourced from Three Locations in Nigeria. Agric. For. Fish. 2023, 12(5), 163-171. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20231205.14

AMA Style

Jayeoba OJ, Dauda KE, Rotowa OJ, Falade LO, Abass UD, et al. Early Germination and Growth Trial of Anogeissus leiocarpus Seeds Sourced from Three Locations in Nigeria. Agric For Fish. 2023;12(5):163-171. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20231205.14

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Ahmad, A. H. (2014). Review on A. leiocarpus: A Potent African Traditional Drug. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry. 4 (3): 496-500.
2. Ouederago, A., Kakai, R. G. and Thiombiano, A. (2013). Population Structure of the wide Spread Species, A. leiocarpus (DC.) Guilt. &Perr. Across the Climatic Gradient in West Africa semi-arid area. South African Journal of Botany. 88: 286-295.
3. Mukhtar, Y., Abdu, K& Maigari, A. K. (2017). Efficacy of A. leiocarpus (DC.) as Potential TherapeuticAgent against Trypanosomiasis Diseases: A Review. International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical Research. 3 (3): 1-9.
4. Victor, Y. A., Alex Boye and Stephen Ayaba. (2013). Phytochemical screening and assessment of wound healing activity of the leaves of A. leiocarpus. European Journal of Experimental Biology. 3 (4): 18-25.
5. Aliyu, B. S. (2006). Common Ethno-medicinal Plants of the Semi-Arid Region of West Africa. Triumph publishing Company Ltd. Kano. Volume 1. P163.
6. Andary, J. C., Doumbia, B., Sauvan, N., Olivier, M. and Garcia, M. J. P. (2005); A. leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr. PROTA, 3.
7. Sacande, M and Sanogo, S. (2007); A. leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr. Seed leaflet (119).
8. Anyanwu, M. U. and Okoye, R. C. (2017); Antimicrobial activity of Nigeria medicinal plant. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology 6 (2): 240-259. doi: 10.5455/Jice. 20170106073231.
9. Muraina, I. Adaudi; A., Mamman., Kazeem, H., Picard, J., McGaw, L. and Eloff, J. (2010). Antimycoplasmal activity of some plant species from Northern Nigeria Compared to the currently used therapeutic agent. Pharmaceutical Biology 48 (10): 1103-1107.
10. El Ghazali, G. E. B., Abdalla, W. E., Khalid, H. E., Khalafalla, M. M and Hamad, A. A. (2003). Medicinal Plants of the Sudan, part V, ―Medicinal Plants of Ingassana Area. Sudan. National Centre for Research.
11. Abubakar, U. S., K. M. Yusuf, G. T., Abdu, S. R. Saidu, G. A., Jamila, A. Fatima (2017). Ethno-pharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants used for the Management of Pediatric Ailments in Kano State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy. 4 (3): 29-39.
12. Okpekon, T. (2004). Antiparasitic Activities of Medicinal Plants Used in Ivory Coast. J Ethno pharmacol. 90 (1): 91-7.
13. Batawila, K., Kokou, K., Koumagolo, K., Gbessor, M., de Foucault, B., Bouchet, P. and Akpagana, K. (2005). Antifungal Activities of Five Combretaceae Used in Togolese Traditional Medicine. Fitoterapia. 76 (2): 264-268.
14. Akanbi, O. M (2012). The Antiplasmodial Activity of A. leiocarpus and its effect on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile in Mice Infected with Plasmodium bergheii. Parasitology Research. 110 (1): 219-226.
15. Olajide, O. (2011). Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Some Nigerian medicinal plants. Am J Sci Ind Res. 4 (3): 328-332.
16. Victor, B. Y. A. and Grace A. (2013). Phytochemical Studies, In-vitro Antibacterial Activities and Antioxidant Properties of the Methanolic and Ethyl Acetate Extracts of the Leaves of A. leiocarpus. International Journal of Biochemistry Research and Review. 3 (2): 173-145.
17. Shuaibu, M. N. (2008a). Castalagin from A. leiocarpus mediates the killing of Leishmania in vitro. Parasitology Research. 103 (6): 1333-1338.
18. Ademola, I. O. and Eloff, J. N. (2011). In Vitro Anthelmintic Effect of Anogeissus Leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. & Perr. Leaf Extracts and Fractions on Developmental Stages of Haemonchus Contortus. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 8 (2): 34-13.
19. Atawodi S. E (2003). In vitro Trypanocidal effect of Methanolic Extract of some Nigerian Savannah Plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2 (9): 317-321.
20. Taiwo, O., Xu, H. X. and Lee, S. F. (1999). Antibacterial Activities of Extracts from Nigerian chewing sticks. Phytother Res. 13 (8): 675-9.
21. Elegami, A. A (2002). Antimicrobial Activity of some Species of the family Combretaceae. Phytother Res. 16 (6): 555-61.
22. Bizimana, N. (1994). Traditional Veterinary Practice in Africa. German Technical Cooperation, ISBN 3880855021.
23. Tirol-padre A., Ladha J. K., Regmi A. P., Bhandari A. L. and Inubushi K. (2007) Organic Amendments affect soil Parameters in Two Long-Term Rice-Wheat Experiments. Soil science Society Journal 17. 442-452.
24. Aluko O. A.; Olanipekun T, O.; Olasoji J. O.; Abiola I. O.; Adeniyan O. N.; Olanipekun S. O.; Omenna E. C.; Kareem K. O. and Douglas A. I. (2014): effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on the yield and nutrient composition of jute mallow; Global Journal of Agriculture Research Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 1-9; Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (
25. Carle, J. R. and Peter M. Bierman (2014): The effects of manure on the soil using manure and compost nutrient sources for fruit and vegetable crops, University of Minnesota.
26. Jayeoba, O. J (2013). Land suitability elevation for arable agriculture in Nasarawa state using Geoinformation. A Ph. D thesis department of geography, Nasarawa State University Keffi. Pp. 247.
27. Egbewole Z. T., Rotowa O. J., Falade L. O. Kuje E. D., Egwunatum A. E., Barde G., Yabo S. A., and Clement S. A. (2021): Provenance Germination Trial of Sterculia setigera Seeds Sourced from Locations within Middle Belt Nigeria. Proceeding of the 64nd Annual Conference/AGM of the ADAN. P33. Pdf. Pp 301-310.
28. Walen J. K, C Ching, and Olson B M (2001): Nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization potentials of soil receiving reported annual manure applications. Biology and Fertility of Soils 34: 334-341.
29. Egbewole, Z. T, Rotowa O. J., Kuje, E. D., Ogundana O. A., Mairafi H. H. and Ibrahim Y. (2018) Early Germination, Growth and Establishment of Khaya senegalensis (DESR.) A. Juss. In Middle-Belt Zone of Nigeria. Journal of Energy and Natural Resources. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2018, pp. 75-82. doi: 10.11648/j.jenr.20180703.11.
30. Rotowa O. J. and Adeagbo A. A. (2019): Provenances Trial of Gmelina aborea (Roxb.) in Middle-Belt Zone of Nigeria. Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences ISSN 2320 – 6063 Available online at: Vol. 7 (3), 1-8, July (2019).
31. Rotowa O. J., Adeagbo A. A, Adegoke I. A and Omoake P. O (2020) Effect of Organic Manure and Potting Media on Germination and Early Growth of Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp. 100-107. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20200804.12.
32. Maydell, H. J. Von. 1986. Trees and shrubs of the Sahel - their characteristics and uses. Schriftenreihe der GTZNo 196.
33. Egbewole Z. T., Falade L. O., Rotowa O. J., Ogundana O. A. Kuje E. D. and Mairafi H. H. (2018): Early germination, growth and establishment of Khaya senegalensis (DESR.) A. Juss in Middle-Belt Zone of Nigeria. Journal of Energy and Natural Resources, doi: 10.11648/j.jenr.20180703.11, ISSN: 2330-7366 (Print); ISSN: 2330-7404 (Online), Nov. 2018; 7 (3): 75-82.
34. Rotowa, O. J., Ugonma D. A., Egbewole, Z. T. and Bhadmus, H. B. (2017): Growth Response of Moringa oleifera Lam. to Organic and Mineral Fertilizers Treatment. International Journal of Applied Research and Technology. ISSN 2277-0585. Vol. 6, No. 5, May 2017.
35. McDonagh J F, B Toomsan, V Limpinuntana, and Giller K E (1995): Grian legumes and green manures as pre-rice crops in Northes Thailand. II. Residue decomposition. Plant and Soil 177: 127-136.
36. Egbewole, Z. T., Rotowa, O. J., Kuje, E. D. and Adedeji, C. A. (2018): Durability assessment of Vitellaria paradoxa wood species exposed to biodegradation agents. Intenational Journal of Applied Research and Technology (IJRT). Vol. 7 (3), ISSN 2277-0585, pp 126-135.