International Journal of Agricultural Economics

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Determinants and Roles of Social Trust on Income and Food Security Status of Smallholder Farmers in North Shewa Zone Oromia, Ethiopia

Social trust is the major component of cognitive social capital which is one of the most important assets in livelihoods. The levels of social trust have effects on rural household’s livelihood strategies and has influence on food and nutrition security and income status of rural households which are usually affected by climatic and non-climatic shocks. This study was identifying the determinants of social trust and analyzing its effects on rural households’ income and food security in north Shewa zone Oromia regional state of Ethiopia. Primary data was collected from 400 sample respondents in the 2022 production year. Looking into the estimated coefficients, the results indicated that probabilities of being in the different extents of social trust are significantly influenced by eight explanatory variables. These variables were; media, agro-ecology, education, extension contact, credit, livestock holding, farm income, and weather road distance. However, having high level of social trust in the community significantly increases households' total farm income by 66% over low trusted farm households at a 1% probability level. Similarly, having medium and high level of social trust in the community significantly increases households' food security status by 23 and 46% over low trusted farm households at a 1% probability level. Therefore, the result of this study would be expected to significantly contribute as policy and strategic inputs for policymakers in designing rural livelihood improvement policies and to the beneficiary in enhancing their welfare and living standard.

Social Trust, Food Security, Determinants, Multinomial Endogenous Switching, Ethiopia

Gari Duguma, Fekedu Beyene, Mengistu Ketem, Kedir Jemal, Bayan Ahmed. (2023). Determinants and Roles of Social Trust on Income and Food Security Status of Smallholder Farmers in North Shewa Zone Oromia, Ethiopia. International Journal of Agricultural Economics, 8(5), 217-227.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Coleman, J.S. 1988. Social Capital in Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of sociology.
2. Putnam, R. 1993 Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
3. Springer.O. 2013. The impact of social activities, social networks, social support and social relationships on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: a systematic review. PMC. 10.1186/s13643-017-0632-2.
4. Ruben, R. and Heras, J. 2012. Social capital, governance and performance of Ethiopian coffee cooperatives’, Annals of public and cooperative economics, 83 (4), pp. 463–84.
5. Uphoff, Norman. 2000. Understanding Social Capital: Learning from the Analysis and Experience of Participation. In Partha Dasgupta and Ismail Serageldin (eds.), Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective, Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
6. Negash, T., Etsay, H., and M.Aregay. 2023. Livelihood options of landless rural households in Tigrai Region, Northern Ethiopia: evidence from selected districts. Agric & Food Secur 12, 6 (2023).
7. Fredu N., Erik M., Josef D. and Eric T. 2009. Gender, social capital and empowerment in northern Ethiopia, MPRA Paper No. 24629. Mekelle University.
8. Central Statistical Agency (CSA) 2020. Population prediction of the country, Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.
9. Anderson, J.A. 1984. Regression and Ordered Categorical Variables. ’Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B (Methodological) 46:1-30.
10. Agresti, A. 2010. Analysis of ordinal categorical data (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
11. D. Fernández; R. Arnold and S. Pledger, (2016), Mixture-based clustering for the ordered stereotype model, Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 93, (C), 46-75
12. Mundlak, Yair. (1978). ‘Pooling of Time-series and Cross-section Data’. Econometrica 46 (1): 69–85.
13. Wooldridge, J. M. (2010). Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
14. Kassie, M., Marenya, P., Tessema, Y., Jaleta, M., Zeng, D., Erenstein, O., Rahut, D. 2018. Measuring farm and market level economic impacts of improved maize production technologies in Ethiopia: Evidence from panel data. J. of Agric. Econ. 69(1), 76–95.
15. Antwi, M., & Chagwiza, C. 2019. Factors influencing savings among land reform beneficiaries in South Africa. International Journal of Social Economics, 46 (4), 474– 484.
16. Wossen, T., Abdoulaye, T., Alene, A., Haile, M. G., Feleke, S., Olanrewaju, A., & Manyong, V. 2017. Impacts of extension access and cooperative membership on technology adoption and household welfare. Journal of Rural Studies, 54, 223–233. 2017.06.022.
17. Hao, J., Bijman, J., Gardebroek, C., Heerink, N., Heijman, W., & Huo, X. 2018. Cooperative membership and farm ers’ choice of marketing channels–Evidence from apple farmers in Shaanxi and Shandong Provinces, China. Food Policy, 74, 53–64. 11.004
18. Asadi-Lari M, Hassanzadeh J, Torabinia M, Vaez-Mahdavi MR, Montazeri A, Ghaem H, Menati R, Niazi M, Kassani A. 2016. Identifying associated factors with social capital using path analysis: A population-based survey in Tehran, Iran (Urban HEART-2). Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2016 Sep 17; 30: 414. PMID: 28210579; PMCID: PMC5307624.
19. Ikhar, Madhuri, Banerjee, Sitikantha, Bandyopadhyay, Kajari, Tiwari, Mithilesh,Kumar, Manoj Deshmukh, Pradeep. 2021. Magnitude and determinants of “Social Capital” among women in reproductive age group - A cross-sectional study from rural Wardha, Central India. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 10(10): p 3606-3610, October 2021. | DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2496_20
20. Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho, Israel Ogunlade, Foluke Beatrice Kehinde, Muhammad Abdulazeez Lawal. 2016. Determinants of Level of Participation of Farmers in Group Activities in Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Gaziosmanpasa University Araştırma Makalesi/Research Article JAFAG ISSN: 1300-2910 E-ISSN: 2147-8848 (2016) 33 (3), 21-27 doi:10.13002/jafag887
21. Gamage S.K.N. 2020. An Analysis of Factors Affecting individual Social Capital Investment in Regional Sri Lanka Department of Economics, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. Journal of Institute of Human Resource Advancement University of Colombo 7(2) 2020.
22. Tajir Hussain, Saira Akhtar, Shabbir Ahmad, Naima Nawaz, Aimon Aslam Rao, Munazzah Manzoor, Wajeeha Khalil, Iftikhar Ali. 2022. How Social Capital Varies With Socio-Demographic Factors In The High Mountainous Gilgit District, Pakistan? Journal of Positive School Psychology 2022, Vol. 6, No. 10, 429-441.
23. Abebaw, D., & Haile, M. G. 2013. The impact of cooperatives on agricultural technology adoption: Empirical evidence from Ethiopia. Food Policy, 38, 82–91.
24. Abate, G. T., Francesconi, G. N., & Getnet, K. 2014. Impact of agricultural cooperatives on smallholders’ technical efficiency: Empirical evidence from Ethiopia. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 85 (2), 257–286.
25. Gemechu Getahun Amente, Nila Chotai.2022. Predictors Of Social Capital In Eastern Wollega Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Journal of positive School Psychology 2022, Vol. 6 No. 8, 8896-8907
26. Zeweld, W., Huylenbroeck, G. V., & Buysse, J. 2015. Household food security through cooperative societies in Northern Ethiopia. International Journal of Development Issues, 14(1), 60–72. 02-2014-0014.
27. Rusha Begna, Kassahun Kelifa and Akalu Dafisa. 2020. Determinants of Multipurpose Cooperatives Member Participation in Agricultural Output Marketing In Southwest Ethiopia, Msc Thesis Presented at Jimma university, Ethiopia