Microwave Irradiation and its Application in Textile Industries

Karima Haggag, A. Ragheb, S. H. Nassar, M. Hashem, H. El Sayed, I. Abd El - Thalouth  © by the authors

ISBN: 978-1-940366-04-3
Published Date: May, 2014
Pages: 72
Paperback: $70
Publisher: Science Publishing Group
Publication Status: Published
To purchase hard copies of this book, please email: book@sciencepublishinggroup.com
Book Description

Textile processing consumes huge amount of energy as in dye fixation and heat setting. Heat can be transferred to material by radiation, conduction and convection. These three ways of heat transfer can be used either separately or in combination. Saving time and energy is of immediate interest to textile industry. The introduction of new techniques which will allow less energy to be used is a highly important area of activity to consider. A relatively short section of properly designed microwave heating can increase production speeds.

In microwave processing, energy is supplied by an electromagnetic field directly to the material. This results in rapid heating throughout the material thickness with reduced thermal gradients. Volumetric heating can also reduce processing times and save energy. The microwave field and the dielectric response of a material govern its ability to heat with microwave energy. Knowledge of electromagnetic theory and dielectric response is essential to optimize the processing of materials through microwave heating.

This review addresses major basic and practical aspects of microwave irradiation as means of heat generation. Emphasis is placed on electromagnetic field dielectric response as well as application of microwave heating to textile coloration, processing equipment, and microwave/materials interactions. A future outlook is also reported within the increasing importance of microwave irradiation in textile coloration and other domains of application.

In the last three decades, the microwave oven has become an essential appliance in most kitchens. Faster cooking times and energy savings over conventional cooking methods are the primary benefits. Although the use of microwaves for cooking food is widespread, the application of this technology to the processing of materials is a relatively new development. The use of microwave energy for processing materials has the potential to offer similar advantages in reduced processing times and energy savings. In conventional thermal processing, energy is transferred to the material through convection, conduction, and radiation of heat from the surfaces of the material. In contrast, microwave energy is delivered directly to materials through molecular interaction with the electromagnetic field. In heat transfer, energy is transferred due to thermal gradients, but microwave heating is the transfer of electromagnetic energy to thermal energy and is energy conversion, rather than heat transfer. This difference in the way energy is delivered can result in many potential advantages to using microwaves for processing of materials. Because microwaves can penetrate materials and deposit energy, heat can be generated throughout the volume of the material. The transfer of energy does not rely on diffusion of heat from the surfaces, and it is possible to achieve rapid and uniform heating of thick materials. In traditional heating, the cycle time is often dominated by slow heating rates that are chosen to minimize steep thermal gradients that result in process-induced stresses. For polymers and ceramics, which are materials with low thermal conductivities, this can result in significantly reduced processing times. Thus, there often is a balance between processing time and product quality in conventional processing. As microwaves can transfer energy throughout the volume of the material, the potential exists to reduce processing time and enhance overall quality.

Author Introduction

Dr.Karima has more than 90 international publications and 3 patents. She has also supervised 26 Masters of Science and PH.D theses. Furthermore Dr. Karima is decorated with a number of awards including; NRC Scientific encouraging Prize in Chemistry, Egypt in 1991,International Federation of Inventors Mediterranean competition for inventions protecting the environment. Italy in 1995, Prof.Dr.M. k. Tolba's Environmental Prize for: "The Best Applied Research to Protect Air, Water and/or Soil" (ARST )1998 and NRCScientific Appreciation Prize, Egypt 2012. In addition Dr.Karima was awarded a number of certifications including; Certificate of Appreciation from Syndicate of Chemistry for her contribution dissemination of culture and scientific information in 2007 and Certificate of scientific achievement at NRC for four consecutive years in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. She acted as Principal Investigator (PI) and Co PI for the National and international research on a number of projects. She acted as a referee for international and national research papers, projects and theses.Dr.Karima organizes and conducts international training courses addition to Chairing and Co-chairing International and national Conferences & Exhibitions. She has conducted a number of presentations in the field of wet processing of textiles at the National Research Centre. Dr. Karima’s research focuses on microwave in textile wet processes, nanotechnology in textile, improving performance properties of colored textiles, Eco-friendly dyeing and pigment printing's pollution prevention and cleaner production in textile.

Table of Contents
  • The Whole Book

  • Front Matter

  • Chapter 1 Microwaves

    1. 1.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum
    2. 1.2 Fundamentals of Microwaves
    3. 1.3 Interaction of Microwaves with Materials[24]
    4. 1.4 Microwave Equipment
    5. 1.4.1 Microwave Generators
    6. 1.4.2 Transmission Lines (Waveguides)
    7. 1.4.3 Microwave Applicators (Cavities)
    8. 1.5 Methods for Performing Reactions under Microwave Irradiation
    9. 1.5.1 Microwave Irradiation vis-a-vis to Conventional Heating
    10. 1.5.2 The Advantages of Microwave
    11. 1.5.3 Disadvantages of Microwave
    12. 1.5.4 Harmful Effects of Microwave
    13. 1.5.5 Microwave Safety
    14. 1.5.6 Economical Aspects
    15. 1.5.7 Maintenance
  • Chapter 2 Microwave Coloration

    1. 2.1 Flax
    2. 2.2 Polyester
    3. 2.2.1 Dyeing of Polyester Fabric
    4. 2.2.2 Effect of Microwave Pretreatment on the Dyeing Behavior of Polyester Fabric
    5. 2.2.3 The Research Progress of the Physical Technology on the Polyester Fabric Dyeing
    6. 2.2.4 The Level Dyeing Technology of Polyester Fabric by Microwave
    7. 2.3 Polyamide
    8. 2.4 Cotton
    9. 2.4.1 Microwave Dyeing of Cotton
    10. 2.4.2 Microwave Versus Conventional Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics
    11. 2.4.3 Application of Microwave Technology in Cotton Fabric Dyeing with Reactive Dyes
    12. 2.4.4 Saturated Steam – Assisted Radio Frequency Fixation of Reactive Printed Cotton Fabrics
    13. 2.4.5 The Use of Microwave Energy for the Fixating of Reactive Printed Cotton Fabrics
    14. 2.5 Wool
    15. 2.5.1 Dyeing of Wool Fabrics
    16. 2.5.2 Microwave Heating for Fixation of Pad – Dyeing on Wool
    17. 2.6 Silk
    18. 2.7 Application of Microwave Technology in Textile Modification
    19. 2.8 Acrylic Fiber
    20. 2.9 Polypropylene
    21. 2.9.1 Acid Dyeing of Polypropylene
    22. 2.9.2 Disperse Dyeability of Polypropylene Fibers Via Microwave and Ultrasonic Energy
    23. 2.10 Use of Microwave Fixation in Printing with Natural Color
    24. 2.11 Synthesis
    25. 2.11.1 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Eco-Friendly Binders from Natural Resources
    26. 2.11.2 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of New Polyfunctionally Substituted Arylazo-Aminopyrazoles
    27. 2.11.3 One – Pot Synthesis of Disperse Dyes under Microwave Irradiation: Dyebath Reuse in Dyeing of Polyester Fabrics
    28. 2.11.4 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of 5-Arylazo-4, 6-Disubstituted-3-Cyano-2-Pyridone Dyes
    29. 2.12 Colour Removal
    30. 2.12.1 Microwave-Assisted Degradation of Remazol Golden Yellow Dye Wastewater as well as Enhanced Chlorine Dioxide CLO2 Catalytic Oxidation Process
    31. 2.12.2 Microwave-Assisted Regeneration Process of Reactive Black 5 Treatments by Combined Electro - Coagulation - Granular Activated Carbon Adsorption
    32. 2.12.3 Regeneration of Acid Orange 7-Exhausted Granular Activated Carbons with Microwave Irradiation
    33. 2.12.4 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Titania Nanocubes, Nanospheres and Nanorods for Photocatalytic Dye Degradation
    34. 2.12.5 Microwave Enhanced-Sorption of Dyestuffs to Dual-Cation Organobentonites from Water
  • Chapter 3 Microwave Pretreatment and Finishing

    1. 3.1 Analytical Solutions to the Drying of Textile Materials with Microwave Heating
    2. 3.2 Degradation of Pentachlorophenol with Zero-Valence Iron Coupled with Microwave Energy
    3. 3.3 Degumming of Silk Using Microwave-Assisted Treatments
    4. 3.4 Development of Catalyst Materials being Effective for Microwave Sterilization
    5. 3.5 Dissolution of Cellulose with NMMO by Microwave Heating
    6. 3.6 Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physical Properties and Morphological Structures of Cotton Cellulose
    7. 3.7 Functionalization of Cotton Fabric with Vinyltrimethoxysilane
    8. 3.8 ICP-OES Determination of Metals Present in Textile Materials
    9. 3.9 Influence of Microwaves on Nonformaldehyde DP Finished Dyed Cotton Fabrics
    10. 3.10 Microwave Curing for Producing Cotton Fabrics with Easy Care and Antibacterial Properties
    11. 3.11 Microwave Properties of Conductive Polymers
    12. 3.12 Microwave Sanitization of Polyester and Cotton
    13. 3.13 Microwave Synthesized Chitosan-Graft-Poly (Methylmethacrylate): An Efficient Zn+2 Ion Binder
    14. 3.14 Modern Applications of Nanotechnology in Textiles
    15. 3.15 Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of 23 Elements from Cotton
    16. 3.16 Oxidative Decomposition of Azo Dye C.I. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) under Microwave Electrodeless Lamp Irradiation in the Presence of H2O2
    17. 3.17 Preparation of TiO2-Pillared Montmorillonite as Photocatalyst Part II Photocatalytic Degradation of a Textile Azo Dye
    18. 3.18 Properties and Applications of Conductive Textiles
    19. 3.19 Single-End Sizing of Yarn using a Slot Applicator
    20. 3.20 Spectroscopic Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanorods Synthesized by Solid-State Reaction
    21. 3.21 The Effect of Microwave Drying on Warp Sizing
    22. 3.22 The Effect of Microwave Radiation on the Cell Genome
    23. 3.23 Thermal Analysis in the Cellulose, Paper and Textile Industry
    24. 3.24 Technique to Reduce Water and Energy Consumption in Polyester Dyeing
    25. 3.25 Microwave Effect
    26. 3.26 Molecular Magic with Microwaves
    27. 3.27 Wrinkle-Resistant Advances
    28. 3.28 Microwave Processing of Nonwovens: An Introduction
    29. 3.29 Microwave Absorption by Textiles
    30. 3.30 Microwave Processes for the Combined Desizing, Scouring, and Bleaching of Grey Cotton Fabrics
    31. 3.31 Usage of Microwave Energy in Textile Production Sector
    32. 3.32 Microwave-Promoted Rapid Curing Reaction of Phenolic Fibers
    33. 3.33 Polypyrrole Coated Textiles
    34. 3.34 Curing of Polymers and Composites by Microwave Energy
    35. 3.35 Antimicrobial Properties of Cotton Medical Textiles
    36. 3.36 Eradication of Insects from Wool Textile
    37. 3.37 Microwave Radiations for Heat-Setting of Polyester Fibers
    38. 3.38 Microwave Irradiation Technique to Enhance Protein Fiber Properties
  • Back Matter