Recent Advances in Biotechnology

Oloke Julius Kola, Elijah Adebayo, Yemisi Adesiji, Oke Adefola, Charles Adetunji, Iyabo Ola  © by the authors

ISBN: 978-1-940366-55-5
Published Date: August, 2016
Pages: 312
Paperback: $170
E-book: $30
Publisher: Science Publishing Group
Publication Status: Published
To purchase hard copies of this book, please email:
Book Description

This book is written to exhibit the successes of our team in producing novel strains of different microorganisms for solving different human problems using biotechnology techniques.

Description of methods 0f enhancing microbial performance like cross-breeding and mutagenesis are often not specific for a particular organism. Research project students and other researchers at industries often face a lot of difficulties in adopting unspecific experimental protocols for their work. In this book specific experimental protocols for enhancement of microbial performance are accompanied with exciting results. Since these protocols can be reproduced; they could be easily adapted by others for similar projects.

The book will be very useful for teaching post graduate and undergraduate students in universities and other tertiary institutions. Both students and university lecturers will find the book useful for teaching and research. Researchers in different Institutes and Industry will also find the book very useful. In addition; while the book will be useful in providing vital information for Entrepreneurs in business set-up; the book will be of immense benefit for farmers in the area of bioherbicide production.

Author Introduction

Oloke Julius Kola obtained a PhD in Microbiology at Obafemi Awolowo University Nigeria; in 1989. He joined the establishment of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in January 1991 and has been involved in the teaching of several microbiology courses. Between June 1994 and February 1995 he did genetic engineering work on Bacillus thurigiensis at the Biology Department , University of Waterloo; Ontario, Canada. He has supervised over 200 undergraduate projects and more than 20 post graduate thesis. He was promoted to the position of a Professor of Microbiology and Biotechnology in October 1999.

His untiring efforts in research work on Biotechnology was crowned with success when in 2005 he formulated a very effective immune booster known as Trino IB which has been successfully used to managed different immunocompromised patients in different countries. As a result of this feat he was awarded “National Productivity Order of Merit Award” by the former president of Nigeria, Dr Goodluck Jonathan in August 2012. He is presently on a leave with All Saints University at St Vincent & Grenadines where he is assisting with the establishment of Faculty of Science.

Dr. Adebayo obtained his PhD from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in 2013. He teaches at the Department of Pure & Applied Biology ; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria.

Dr. Oke A J obtained his PhD from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in 2006. He teaches at the Department of Microbiology. Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria.

Dr. Adesiji Yemisi obtained her PhD from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in 2011. She teaches at the Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Oshogbo, Nigeria.

Dr. Ola Iyabo obtained her PhD Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in 2013. She teaches at the Biology Department; Ladoke Akintola University of technology; Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

Dr. Charles Adetunji obtained his PhD from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria in 2015. He works at the Nigeria Stored Products in Ilorin, Nigeria.

Table of Contents
  • The Whole Book

  • Front Matter

  • Chapter 1 Efficiency of Cross-Breeding and Mutagenesis in the Development of the New Strains of Pleurotus Pulmonarius

    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Species)
    3. 1.3 Genetics and Breeding of Mushroom
    4. 1.3.1 Breeding Strategies
    5. 1.3.2 Induction of Mutants
    6. 1.3.3 Ultraviolet Light (UV) as Mutagenic Agent
    7. 1.3.4 Cross Breeding
    8. 1.3.5 Protoplast Fusion
    9. 1.3.6 Transgenic Breeding
    10. 1.4 Importance of Mushrooms
    11. 1.5 Nutritional Value of Mushrooms
    12. 1.6 Mushrooms as Medicine
    13. 1.7 Mushroom Nutriceuticals
    14. 1.8 Strain Enhancement
    15. 1.9 Strains Collection
    16. 1.10 Collection of Data with Genbank Accession Numbers for Isolates of Pleurotus Species
    17. 1.11 Mutation and Hybridization Procedure
    18. 1.12 Development of Mutant and Hybrid Strains of P. pulmonarius
    19. 1.13 Effect of Temperature, pH and Light on the Mycelia Yield of Wild, Mutant and Hybrid Strains
    20. 1.14 Statistical Analysis for Mycelia Yield Production
    21. 1.15 The Yield Performance of Wild, Mutant and Hybrid Strains of P. pulmonarius
    22. 1.16 Spawn Production
    23. 1.17 Sporophore/Fruit Body Production (Rice Straw as Substrate)
    24. 1.18 Sporophore/Fruit Body Production (Sawdust as Substrate)
    25. 1.19 Genetic Diversity Study
    26. 1.19.1 Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol
    27. 1.19.2 Electrophoretic Separation of Genomic DNA
    28. 1.19.3 Spectral Analysis of Genomic DNA
    29. 1.19.4 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    30. 1.19.5 Internal Transicribed Spacer (ITS) DNA Assay
    31. 1.20 Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis
    32. 1.20.1 Quantification and Purification of Genomic DNA
    33. 1.20.2 Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Fingerprint of Hybrid and Mutant Strains of P. pulmonarius
    34. 1.20.3 The Phylogenetic Analyses of Mutant and Hybrid Strains of P. pulmonarius Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) 5.8s and 28s Ribosomal RNA Gene
    35. 1.21 Conclusion
  • Chapter 2 Use of Mutagenesis Enhanced Tyrosinase Production from Pleurotus Species and Potential of Natural Polymers in Its Immobilization

    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Objective
    3. 2.3 Fermentation Technology
    4. 2.3.1 Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF)
    5. 2.3.2 Submerged Liquid Fermentation (SLF)
    6. 2.4 Enzymes
    7. 2.4.1 Classification of Enzymes
    8. 2.4.2 Enzyme Kinetics
    9. 2.4.3 Production of Enzymes in Filamentous Fungi
    10. 2.4.4 Immobilization of Enzymes
    11. 2.4.5 Advantages of Immobilized Enzymes
    12. 2.4.6 Applications of Immobilized Enzymes
    13. 2.4.7 Tyrosinase
    14. 2.5 Mushrooms
    15. 2.6 Sources of Natural Polymers
    16. 2.6.1 Brachystegia Nigerica
    17. 2.6.2 Detarium Microcarpum (English Tallow Seeds)
    18. 2.7 Strain Selection
    19. 2.8 Mutagenesis
    20. 2.9 Selection of Organism for Growth in Fermentation Medium
    21. 2.10 Preparation of Fermentation Medium
    22. 2.11 Extraction of Intracellular Proteins
    23. 2.12 Assay of Fungal Strains for Tyrosinase Activities
    24. 2.13 Tyrosinase Purification
    25. 2.14 Purification of Crude Tyrosinase from Wild-Type and Mutants of P. ostreatus and P. florida Using DEAECellulose-52
    26. 2.15 Gel filtration Purification of Crude Tyrosinases from Wild-Type and Mutants of P. ostreatus and P. florida Using Sephadex G-100
    27. 2.16 Purification of Tyrosinase from P. ostreatus Wild Type (POW) and Mutant (PO90)
    28. 2.17 Purification of Tyrosinase from P. florida Wild Type (PFW) and 30 Minute Mutant (PF30)
    29. 2.18 Electrophoresis
    30. 2.19 Kinetic Study of Tyrosinase
    31. 2.19.1 Effects of Enzyme Concentrations on Activity
    32. 2.19.2 Effect of pH on Tyrosinase Activities
    33. 2.19.3 Effect of Temperature on Tyrosinase Activities
    34. 2.19.4 Effects of Substrate Concentration on Tyrosinase Activity
    35. 2.20 Prtreatment of Natural Polymers
    36. 2.20.1 Deproteinization of Natural Polymers
    37. 2.20.2 Preparation of Crosslinked Natural Polymers
    38. 2.21 Tyrosinase Immobilization Procedure
    39. 2.22 Comparative Characterization of Immobilized Tyrosinase Using Brachystegia Nigerica, Detarium Microcarpum, Silica Gel and Sodium Alginate
    40. 2.23 Conclusions
  • Chapter 3 Potentials of Staphylococcus Aureus Protein A in Immunotherapy

    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Uses and Mode of Action of Immunomodulators
    3. 3.2.1 Immunomodulators for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
    4. 3.2.2 Immunomodulator as Antibacterial Agents
    5. 3.2.3 Immunomodulators for Viral Infections
    6. 3.2.4 Immunomodulators in Heat and Cold Stresses
    7. 3.2.5 Immunomodulators in the Therapy of Serious Burrns Infections
    8. 3.2.6 Immunomodulators in Dermatology
    9. 3.3 Synthetic Immunomodulators
    10. 3.4 Screening for Immunomodulators
    11. 3.5 Staphylococcus Aureus
    12. 3.6 Staphylococcus Aureus Resistance to Antibiotics
    13. 3.7 Physiochemical and Biological Properties of Staphylococcal Protein A
    14. 3.8 Protein A Nature Endowment
    15. 3.9 Mechanism of Binding Staphylococcal Protein A to Immunoglobulin G
    16. 3.10 Immunomodulatory Properties and Mechanism of Action of Staphylococcal Protein A
    17. 3.11 Screening Staphylococcus Aureus for the Possession of Protein A
    18. 3.12 Immunomodulatory Effect of Staphylococcus Aureus Protein an Extract in Rats
    19. 3.13 Staphylococcus Aureus Protein A in Immunotherapy
  • Chapter 4 Arcobacters: Emerging Food-Borne and Zoonotic Opprotunistic Pathogens

    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 The Bacteria
    3. 4.3 History and Taxonony
    4. 4.4 Cultural Characteristics and Media of Isolation of Arcobacter
    5. 4.5 Morphology
    6. 4.6 Growth Atmosphere
    7. 4.7 Identification of Arcobacter Strains
    8. 4.7.1 Identification Based on Phenotypic Characteristics
    9. 4.7.2 Biochemical Identification
    10. 4.7.3 Serological Identification
    11. 4.7.4 Identification Based on Fatty Acid Composition
    12. 4.7.5 DNA - Based Identification Methods
    13. 4.8 Epidemiological Characterisation of Arcobacter Strains
    14. 4.9 Phylogenetic and Genomic Analysis of Arcobacter
    15. 4.10 Virulence Attributes of Arcobacter
    16. 4.11 Arcobacter and Human
    17. 4.12 Mode of Transmission
    18. 4.13 Arcobacter in Food Animals
    19. 4.14 Water and Milk
    20. 4.15 Arcobacters in Fruits and Vegetables
    21. 4.16 Antibiotic Susceptibility of Arcobacters
    22. 4.17 Epidemiology
    23. 4.18 Pathogenicity and Virulence Properties of Arcobacter
    24. 4.19 Arcobacter in Poultry
    25. 4.20 Arcobacter in Pigs
    26. 4.21 Pathogenicity of Arcobacter
    27. 4.21.1 Agglutination Study
    28. 4.21.2 Cell Culture Study
    29. 4.22 Role of Arcobacter in Infertility
    30. 4.23 Distribution in Human
    31. 4.24 Recommendations, Prevention and Control of Arcobacter
  • Chapter 5 Advances in Formulation of Multi-Combination Bioherbicides

    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Characterization, Production and Evaluation of Phytotoxic Potential from Bioherbicidal Agents
    3. 5.2.1 Isolation of Bioherbicidal Isolates
    4. 5.2.2 Isolation and Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    5. 5.3 Isolation and Identification of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae
    6. 5.4 Structural Elucidation of Bioactive Compounds from the Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    7. 5.5 Genetically Improvement of the Biobherbicidal Wild Strain
    8. 5.5.1 Exposure of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae to UV Light to Induce Mutation
    9. 5.5.2 Exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UV Light to Induce Mutation
    10. 5.6 Multi-Combination Formulation of the Bioherbicides
    11. 5.6.1 Preparation of Pestal Granules
    12. 5.6.2 Various Formulations
    13. 5.7 Performance of the Bioherbicides in the Control of Weed in Maize and Cowpea Cropping System as Well as Their Effects on Crop Performance/Yield
    14. 5.8 Host Range Test
    15. 5.9 Non Target Effects of Various Formulated Bioherbicides on Soil Microorganisms
    16. 5.10 Green House Study
    17. 5.10.1 Procedures for Data Collection in the Green House
    18. 5.10.2 Greenhouse Parameters
    19. 5.11 Field Evaluation of Pre-Emergence of Different Bioherbicides in Weed Control in Maize and Cowpea Cropping System
    20. 5.11.1 Site Description
    21. 5.11.2 Pre-Emergence Effect of the Formulated Bioherbicides on the Field
    22. 5.11.3 Weed Morphological Type
    23. 5.11.4 Weed Control Efficiency
    24. 5.12 Persistence of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Soil After Application of the Pestal Granules for the Field Studies
    25. 5.12.1 Recovery and Enumeration of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae from Soil
    26. 5.12.2 Recovery and Enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Soil
    27. 5.13 Conclusion
  • Back Matter