About This Special Issue
Primary considered, human effort seems to be shown in terms of physical aspects. Economic paradigms such as early liberalism, socialism, and revisionism focused on discussion of physical labor, evoking academic analyses. With the advent of postmodernism, turned by Derrida, the trend of times has been multi-polarized (Cisney, 2014), as much as individual persons are interpreted in diverse social contexts (Durkheim, 2014). Thus, Human resources need to be analyzed as socio-psychological processes in addition to economic material criteria.
As multi-polarized societies and high technological structures have resulted in reconsidering the roles of humans, the emergence of service industry has been substantial. In these circumstances, the individual identity as an element of industrial organism could be complemented by the evaluation of emotional aspects. So the emotional subject has been addressed by the academic world as major issues. Thus, a vast amount of research, estimating the values of labor by emotional criteria has been conducted (Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002; Hochschild, 1979).
Although the discussions of emotional labor have induced the scale of some psychological values of labor, these cannot be out of the problem that psychological processes should be analyzed in diversity and depth. What is doubted casts a question as to whether or not the emotional scale covers the whole spectrum of mental process. Some of the analytic philosophers influenced by Schlick's principle of verification (Leinfellner, 1985), belittle the concept of emotion since it is only an expression of attitude. Along with this doctrine, what is worked under or with emotional phenomenon is owed to one of inner processes as cognitive process. So it is reasonable to posit that cognition is differentiated from emotion as far as components of the mind are concerned. What is remarkable for cognitive factors has been discussed in dimensions of social attitude. Attitude was theorized to be divided into cognition and emotion, which are conceptualized as independent of each other (Izard, ?Kagan, & Zajonc, 1984; Wagner & Sherwood, 1969).
With the above taxonomy discussed, by what human efforts are covered are physical, emotional and cognitive aspects (Lee & Lee, submitted). Thus this project attempts to attest in what dimensions human efforts are compared. Posited as Physical, Emotional, and Cognitive dimension, whether they are independent, and advanced whether they are hierarchical should be tested in various human situations. To what areas of human effort the dimensional descriptions apply are the following questions. Therefore this projects will evokes the dimensional analyses of the various fields where human efforts are realized as the industrial labors, the social relations, the perspective to human and environment, and the personal identity.